Wednesday, January 30, 2019

History Repeats - Mexican Border War 1916

Mexican Border Conflict 1910-1919

From the beginning of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, the United States Army was stationed in force along the border and on several occasions fought with Mexican rebels or federals. The height of the conflict came in 1916 when revolutionary Pancho Villa attacked the American border town of Columbus, New Mexico. In response, the United States Army, under the direction of General John J. Pershing, launched an expedition into northern Mexico, to find and capture Villa. Though the operation was successful in finding and engaging the Villista rebels, and in killing Villa's two top lieutenants, the revolutionary himself escaped and the American army returned to the United States in January 1917. Conflict at the border continued, however, and the United States launched several additional, though smaller operations into Mexican territory until after the American victory in the Battle of Ambos Nogales, leading to the establishment of a permanent border wall.

August 27, 1918: The Battle of Ambos Nogales brings the Fence to the Border

In 1918, International Street ran right down the center of Ambos (“Both”) Nogales.

Arizona lay to the north; Sonora to the south. The railroad depot, stores and saloons straddled the border. If one lived in Nogales, Arizona or Nogales, Sonora it made little difference socially – the residents from either side occasionally brawled over women or too much mescal, but for the most part they enjoyed friendly relations and shared the benefits from the local economy based on smuggling cigars, liquor, firearms and cattle.

There had been a few skirmishes in the past (as when Pancho Villa had ridden into town), but still there was no fence down the middle of International Street. The residents understood the protocol – they were expected to cross at one of two entry points, either at Morley Avenue or farther west at Grand Avenue. When trains arrived at the border, First Class passengers could ride across in the cars, while those in coach got off the train, walked and then re-boarded after passing through customs.

On August 27 a carpenter named Gil Lamadrid was walking back into Mexico. As he crossed the border, a U.S. Customs Inspector ordered him to halt, curious about the large parcel he was carrying. Only a few feet away, Mexican customs officers directed him to ignore the summons and continue into Mexico. Gil Lamadrid became confused and hesitated as the two competing groups of customs agents shouted instructions to him. At this point, a U.S. Infantryman raised his Springfield rifle to encourage his return. In the midst of the ensuing commotion a shot was fired, and the carpenter dropped to the ground.

Thinking that the man had been shot, a Mexican Customs Officer grabbed his pistol and opened fire on the U.S. guards, wounding an army private in the face. A U.S. Inspector drew his revolver and returned fire, killing two Mexican Customs Officers. Shaken but unhurt, Gil Lamadrid jumped up and sprinted down a nearby street. As the sound of gunfire rattled the neighborhood, citizens on the Mexican side of the border ran to their homes and picked up rifles to join the Mexican troops.

The U.S. border authorities panicked – World War I was being fought in Europe and the Germans had been urging the Mexicans to abandon their neutrality. Was another front in the war now open? A troop of Buffalo Soldiers was called into town. Under heavy fire, the 10th Cavalry dismounted and crossed the border into the streets and buildings of Nogales, Sonora. Looking for a tactical advantage the troops mounted an assault on the heights immediately to the east of the towns, while militia on the Arizona side started firing their weapons from the windows and rooftops of their houses. Late in the fighting, members of the 35th Infantry placed a machine gun on top of a stone building and fired into the Mexican positions.

As the violence escalated, the Mayor of Nogales, Sonora, took a white handkerchief, tied it to his cane, and ran into the streets of his city in an attempt to quell the violence. As U.S. troops crossed to the Mexican side of International Street he pleaded with the angry crowd to put down their weapons. A shot from the Arizona side felled the Mexican mayor. About 7:45 PM, the Mexicans waved a large white flag of surrender over their customs building.

After the battle was over and the dead were buried and peace restored, the U.S. and Mexico authorities agreed to divide the two border communities with a chain-link border fence, the first border wall put in place between the two countries.

Best web site I found explaining the 1910-1919 Mexican conflict (sorry but it contains a lot of ads):

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Tobacco census 1910 - Shelby F. Wallace

Shelby Franklin Wallace was born 26 Jul 1864 in Ohio County; he died 15 Aug 1961 in St. Lucie County, Florida and is buried in the Carson Cemetery, Hartford.  He married Rosetta (Ettie) U. Davis 8 Jul 1888.  Following her death he married Lillie A. Royal 3 Jan 1892.  On 1 Jun 1905 he married his third wife, Ione B. Render.

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Tobacco census 1910 - Cicero G. Taylor

Cicero G. Taylor was born 7 May 1859 and died 12 Jan 1946 - both in Ohio County. He was 86 when he died. He is buried in Mount Zion Baptist Church Cemetery near Cromwell.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Tobacco census 1910 - Shields brothers

James Pendleton Shields was born 3 Jan 1853 and died 11 Apr 1921.  He lived in Cromwell, Ohio County and is buried in the Shields Cemetery.

Rusaw Shields was born 7 Jul 1860 and died 13 Sep 1929 and is buried in the Shields Cemetery.  His first name appears to be Loveless (see 1910 census).  Since both men are  buried in the Shields Cemetery, it is most logical that L. R. and J. P.  are brothers. 

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Tobacco census 1910 - David M. Park

David Milton Park was born 4 Feb 1852 in Pennsylvania and died 4 May 1929 in Jefferson County, KY at age 77 and was buried at Central Grove Cemetery, Centertown, Ohio County. His farm was in the McHenry area of Ohio County.

Saturday, January 12, 2019

Tobacco census 1910 - Prince Albert Moxley

Prince Albert Moxley lived on No Creek Road near Hartford with his wife, Nannie (Mary Martha Frank), and their children, Ira, Sallie and Claude.   Mr. Moxley was born Aug 1861 in Fordsville and died in 1932 in Dunklin County, Missouri, where he is buried.  The family moved to Missouri before 1920.

Wednesday, January 9, 2019

Tobacco census 1910 - James W. Morris

James William Morris was born 11 July 1836 in Kentucky and died 21 Feb 1920 at his home six miles east of Hartford, Ohio County at age 83. He is buried in the Milton Taylor Cemetery at Hartford. He was married to Priscilla Vance in 1876 and they had two daughters, Martha A. and Mary H., and two sons, William Dudley and Elijah.

Saturday, January 5, 2019

Tobacco census 1910 - Dudley Leach

Nelson Dudley Leach was born 17 Aug 1887 (the year of his birth might have been 1888 but his WWI Draft Registration says 1887) in Rosine and according to the 1910 census lived on Rosine Road in Cromwell, Ohio County.  Dudley married Bertha Holland in 1904. He died 26 May 1960 in Hartford and is buried in Sunnyside Cemetery at Beaver Dam.

Here is a quote from his grand-son, Ercie J. Leach: "I remember my Grandfather (Pap) as a "gruff old man" but really very nice and loving in his own way. The first time I ever saw him he seemed very, very old, but never aged any more, to me, up until the time he died. I enjoyed going to the fields with him. I looked forward to lunchtime when I would get to ride one of the mules or horses (Bob and Annie, the mules when he lived on the old Muddy Creek farm near Mt. Zion Church and later Maude and Mabel, the gray horses when he lived on the John Duke Thompson Place in Horton) to water them in the creek and almost sliding off when they bent down to drink. Sharing his lunch, biscuit and country ham, or fried egg sandwiches. He always worked extremely hard, plowing, cutting bushes out of the fields or fence rows, cultivating or hoeing corn. I worked hard for him in the late 40's in the tobacco fields, hanging tobacco in the barn, or stripping (Burley or Dark). He was a good guy and I loved him and liked being around him. He and Mam always wanted me to tell them about being in the Army. When I came home on leave after being commissioned, they were very impressed with my 2nd Lieutenant bars. I was too, of course. I thought I was pretty hot stuff. They were fascinated that I was flying airplanes and helicopters. I would always go visit them in Rosine and talk about the Army and flying for hours at a time. I was home on leave from Fort Carson, Colorado in May 1960, and he asked me to take him to the Doctor. I assumed it was just a routine visit, although when I asked him how he felt, he told me he didn't feel too good, but would be OK. Three or four days later, Dorrine, our two children and I left to go visit Ginny in Louisville. Shortly after we arrived at Ginny's we received a call from Mama that Pap had passed away. He had been pretty lonely after Mam died almost three years earlier. He had a hard Kentucky Farmer's life; he was almost 72 years old."

Wednesday, January 2, 2019

Tobacco census 1910 - Leonard Hoover

Leonard Clifton Hoover was born 17 May 1859 and died of cancer 8 Nov 1940 at age 81. Leonard was a farmer and lived on Rural Route 2, Hartford. He is buried in the Clear Run Baptist Church Cemetery, north of Hartford.