Saturday, August 13, 2016

1860 – 1875 in Kentucky

     In researching my ancestry I noticed that some individuals and families moved from Kentucky to other states during the Civil War (IL, IN, MO, AR & TX) and in the decade following the end of the Civil War; sometimes a family would have multiple moves. This movement was usually because families were seeking work and some sort of financial stability due to the bad economy in Kentucky during and immediately after the Civil War.  Some of these families returned to Kentucky but some did not.

After the Civil War:

     The end of the Civil War found Kentucky in a terrible plight. The conflict had left behind its toll of physical destruction as well, for crops had been lost, livestock taken, and property destroyed. There were 89,000 fewer horses, 37,000 fewer mules, and 172,000 fewer cattle in Kentucky in 1865 than at the start of the war. The amount of land under cultivation had declined drastically. Despite wartime inflation, land values in places like Lexington decreased one-fourth between 1862 and 1872. A soldier returned to one Kentucky town and was welcomed by "neglected farms .... roads and paths overgrown with weeds, and almost no business of any kind being carried on." But that sense of economic setback could be - and would be - easily overcome, for in truth Kentucky had not suffered as greatly as the states farther south. The commonwealth thus emerged from the conflict hobbled, but strong enough to move ahead, to grow rapidly, even to take a leadership role in a region where other states had much greater handicaps and devastation to overcome. More damaging than the economic costs was the war's effect on the psyche of the populace. So much of what had once been was no more. The optimism that drove settlers to frontier Kentucky now seemed a rare commodity. 

     The return to peacetime normalcy, often called Reconstruction or Readjustment, proved a formidable challenge. In 1865, Kentucky faced a number of problems: federal military rule had to be ended; the economy had to be revived; labor problems accompanying the emancipation of the slaves had to be resolved; and the freed Negro had to be integrated into the state's political, economic and legal systems. Although the state was spared the trauma of secession and the subsequent necessity of readmission to the Union, because of Kentucky's slave interests the years immediately following the war were as critical to its residents as to those of the Confederate states. Lawlessness and violence abounded in Kentucky during the decades after the war, continuing to the turn of the century and beyond. The suspicion and animosity of the war did not end as soldiers returned home to live, often side-by-side, in continuing hatred. Seething over real and imagined injuries, lawless groups roamed the countryside. Outrages occurred throughout the state; beatings, lynchings, shootings, rape and arson created a dismal picture. 

     As the state's political situation stabilized, public attention turned toward a long overdue reform of the public school system. Between 1861-1865 education was the last thing on anyone's mind; the legislature's one appropriation for schools was based on money confiscated from illegal gambling enterprises and dog fees. With almost one-fourth of all Kentuckians over the age of ten illiterate, the establishment of a state education system proved an enormous task. Schools had to be reopened with public support, and facilities for the children of freedmen had to be provided. Unfortunately, there were few trained teachers, scant facilities for educating them, no school commissioners or boards, and a lack of textbooks. Whether black or white, the Kentucky school child's education was far from ideal. The Common School Report of 1871 described schools as having "leaky roofs, filthy floors, smoked ceilings and walls defaced with obscene images," and the 1874 survey stated that "foul air and feculent odors" prevaded the school buildings. No wonder that schools failed to attract more than 40% of the school age children. The state did not even have an eight-week per annum compulsory school law until 1896. For those who did attend, the McGuffey Readers, the Eclectic Spelling Book, and the American Standard School Series provided instruction in the three R's, spelling, grammar, composition, history, geography, and the laws of health. In 1893, Kentucky history was included in the curriculum.

     The Panic of 1873 stands as the first global depression brought about by industrial capitalism. It began a regular pattern of boom and bust cycles that distinguish our current economic system and which continue to this day. While the first of many such market "corrections," the effects of the downturn were severe and, in 1873, unexpected; the Panic of 1873 spanned from October 1873 to March 1879. Numbers fail to convey the depth of the economy distress. Average wages fell by nearly a quarter. Thousands of American companies defaulted on over a billion dollars in debt, nine out of 10 U.S. railroad concerns failed, and the country faced double-digit unemployment for over a decade. The worst effects of the downturn (unemployment, homelessness, malnutrition) were concentrated in the industrial sectors, but every region suffered and the economy continued to sputter. The long-term effects were quite noticeable from today's perspective. While the northern U.S. economy raged like a furnace from 1840 to 1860, averaging over six percent annual growth per year, the country's overall economic productivity fell by over 24 percent during the two decades that followed the Panic of 1873.

Hartford Herald 1875

      The first issue of the Hartford Herald was published January 6, 1875 – it is listed as “Volume 1, Number 1.”  The publisher was John P Barnett & Co, Hartford, and the editor was Wallace Gruelle.  It was a four page newspaper with the front page largely a reprint of a popular book titled Maria Saxonbury, authored by Mrs. Henry Wood; plus short articles from out-of-state newspapers, a few bad jokes and an article from the Detroit Free Press titled The Model Wife (not exactly political correctness).  Page 2 was “News of the Week” and was national and international news for the past week. Page 3 was local and regional news (one story on page 3 was titled “The Trouble at the Render Coal Mines”). Page 4 was dedicated to agricultural news. Advertisements were sprinkled throughout the four pages. An annual subscription was $2.00.

     I have spent a few hours reading all 52 issues from 1875 and I have picked out a few things that I found interesting.  The following is from February 3, 1875 (sorry the two photos don't line up very well):






Wednesday, August 10, 2016

SAMUEL E. HILL

SAMUEL E. HILL was born January 30, 1844, in Morgantown, Ky., a son of Daniel S. and Malinda (Ewing) Hill, of Butler County, Ky. The father was a carpenter by trade, and in 1850 moved to Ohio County. In 1862 he was elected county judge, and died in May, 1865. The mother died in June, 1844. There were six children born to them, of whom our subject is the sole survivor. Samuel E. was principally reared in Hartford, where he received his education at the old Hartford Seminary. When sixteen years old he began working on a farm, and at the age of eighteen enlisted in Company G, Twelfth Kentucky Cavalry, Federal service, and at organization of the company was appointed first sergeant. His brother, John W., who was captain of the company and acting major, was killed at Knoxville, Tenn., while leading his battalion in a charge at the beginning of the siege. Samuel E., at the death of his brother, was elected captain over the lieutenant of the company, with only two dissenting votes, and was later breveted major. His commission as captain was issued January 18, 1864, a few days before he was twenty years of age; he was known as the "boy captain." He was after Morgan on his raid in Indiana, was in the east Tennessee campaign under Burnside; in the Atlanta campaign under Sherman, and at the Saltville raid and other severe engagements. He never missed a campaign with his company, or spent a day in the hospital. After his return from the war he began the study of law under Hon. D. H. McHenry, and graduated, in 1867, from the Louisville law school. He then returned to Hartford and opened a law office in partnersnip with Judge J. W. Kincheloe; this partnership terminated after five years. In 1873 he entered into partnership with D. H. McHenry, who recently retired and gave place to his son, the firm now being Hill & McHenry. In 1877 Mr. Hill was elected State senator, was chairman of the joint committee on education, and was a member of two of the law committees of the senate. In politics he is a Democrat. He is now and has been for many years past a member of the State and county committee. October 12, 1869, he married Naomi Baird, daughter of Alexander B. and Sallie M. (Barnett) Baird, of this county. To them have been born three children: Effie, Mary, and Lizzie, all at home. Mrs. Hill is a Methodist and Mr. Hill leans to the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, has been twice high priest of his chapter and thrice master of his lodge. 

Source: J. H. BATTLE, W H. PERRIN, & G. C. KNIFFIN 1895

Note:  Samuel Ewing Hill died 30 May 1904 in Lexington, Fayette County, KY in the Lexington Cemetery.  Served as Adjutant General of Kentucky 1887-1891.





Saturday, August 6, 2016

1850 Ohio County Slave Census Schedule - 4 of 4

Slave Owner  Slave Owner  Number of     Age     Estimated       Sex      Race

Given Name   Surname         Slaves                           BirthYear       

Pg 5:

Johnathan        Hoover            1                      5          1845                Male    Black
Johnathan        Hoover            1                      4          1846                Male    Black
Johnathan        Hoover            1                      2          1848                Male    Black
George             Hoover            1                      9          1841                Female Black
Margaret          French             1                      52        1798                Female Black
Margaret          French             1                      52        1798                Male    Black
James A          Johnston          1                      35        1815                Male    Black
James A          Johnston          1                      19        1831                Female Black
James A          Johnston          1                      9          1841                Male    Mulatto
James A          Johnston          1                      5 mos   1850               Male    Mulatto
Jefferson          Smith               1                      22        1828                Male    Black
Jefferson          Bell                  1                      16        1834                Male    Black
William H         French             1                      10        1840                Female Black
George W L    Richardson     1                      35        1815                Female Black
George W L    Richardson     1                      9          1841                Female Mulatto
George W L    Richardson     1                      6          1844                Male    Mulatto
Barnett            Hudson           1                      30        1820                Male    Mulatto
Mary                Wilhite             1                      39        1811                Male    Black
John J             Smith               1                      77        1773                Male    Black
John J             Smith               1                      25        1825                Female Black
John P             Burk                1                      27        1823                Female Mulatto
John P             Burk                1                      13        1837                Male    Black
John P             Burk                1                      3          1847                Female Black
John P             Burk                1                      1          1849                Male    Black
John P             Burk                1                      30        1820                Male    Black
Hudson           Megan             1                      13        1837                Female Black
Jemima           Wade               1                      30        1820                Female Black
Jemima           Wade               1                      25        1825                Female Black
Jemima           Wade               1                      8          1842                Female Black
Jemima           Wade               1                      4          1846                Female Black
William             Roach             1                      13        1837                Male    Black
Elizabeth         Roach             1                      45        1805                Female Black
Elizabeth         Roach             1                      13        1837                Female Black
George            Roach             1                      12        1838                Male    Black
George            Roach             1                      10        1840                Male    Black
James W        Willis                1                      14        1836                Female Mulatto
James W        Willis                1                      6          1844                Male    Black
Lewis             Owen                1                      24        1826                Male    Black
Lewis             Owen                1                      9          1841                Female Black
David               Willis                1                      29        1821                Male    Black
Francis Y        Haynes            1                      27        1823                Female Black
Francis Y        Haynes            1                      3          1847                Male    Black
James             Bannen            1                      18        1832                Male    Black
Eliza                Huff                  1                      34        1816                Male    Black
Levi J               Marlow            1                      10        1840                Female Mulatto
John G             Moberly          1                      44        1806                Female Black
John G             Moberly          1                      39        1811                Male    Black
John G             Moberly          1                      24        1826                Female Black
Carter J            Kelley             1                      20        1830                Male    Mulatto
John                 Haynes           1                      40        1810                Male    Black
John                 Haynes           1                      35        1815                Female Black
John                 Haynes           1                      5          1845                Male    Black
John                 Haynes           1                      3          1847                Male    Black
Isaac                May                 1                      26        1824                Female Black
Isaac                May                 1                      2          1848                Male    Black
Travesse         Herndon          1                      37        1813                Female Black
Travesse         Herndon          1                      1          1849                Male    Black
John                 Ford                1                      20        1830                Female Black
Warner            Cobb               1                      44        1806                Female Black
Warner            Cobb               1                      44        1806                Female Black
Warner            Cobb               1                      21        1829                Male    Black
Warner            Cobb               1                      19        1831                Male    Black
Warner            Cobb               1                      13        1837                Male    Black
Warner            Cobb               1                      11        1839                Male    Black
Warner            Cobb               1                      14        1836                Female Black
Warner            Cobb               1                      17        1833                Female Black
Warner            Cobb               1                      4          1846                Male    Black
Warner            Cobb               1                      4          1846                Female Black
Warner            Cobb               1                      6 mos   1850                Female Black
Charles W R   Cobb               1                      15        1835                Male    Black
Elijah               Smith               1                      33        1817                Female Black
Elijah               Smith               1                      30        1820                Male    Black
Elijah               Smith               1                      25        1825                Female Black
Elijah               Smith               1                      14        1836                Female Black
Elijah               Smith               1                      12        1838                Male    Black
Elijah               Smith               1                      4          1846                Female Black
Elijah               Smith               1                      4          1846                Female Black
Elijah               Smith               1                      2          1848                Female Black
Milburn           Mccartey         1                      22        1828                Male    Black
Mary                Huff                 1                      36        1814                Female Mulatto
Mary                Huff                 1                      12        1838                Female Mulatto
Mary                Huff                 1                      10        1840                Female Mulatto
Mary                Huff                 1                      8          1842                Female Mulatto
Mary                Huff                 1                      7          1843                Female Mulatto

Pg 6:

Mary                Huff                 1                      6          1844                Male    Mulatto
William            Yates               1                      53        1797                Female Black
William            Yates               1                      22        1828                Male    Black
William            Yates               1                      20        1830                Female Black
William            Yates               1                      17        1833                Female Black
Mary                Bright               1                      45        1805                Female Mulatto
Mary                Bright               1                      43        1807                Male    Mulatto
Mary                Bright               1                      43        1807                Female Black
Mary                Bright               1                      19        1831                Male    Black
Mary                Bright               1                      17        1833                Male    Black
Mary                Bright               1                      12        1838                Male    Black
Mary                Bright              1                      8          1842                Male    Mulatto
Mary                Bright               1                      3          1847                Male    Black
Samuel L        Shuttey            1                      6          1844                Female Black
Edmund          Roach             1                      25        1825                Male    Black
Edmund          Roach             1                      21        1829                Female Black
Edmund          Roach             1                      12        1838                Male    Mulatto
Edmund          Roach             1                      10        1840                Female Black
Edmund          Roach             1                      7          1843                Male    Black
Edmund          Roach             1                      2          1848                Male    Black
Clement         Johnston         1                      37        1813                Female Mulatto
Clement         Johnston         1                      26        1824                Female Black
Clement         Johnston         1                      8          1842                Female Mulatto
Clement         Johnston         1                      6          1844                Male    Mulatto
Clement         Johnston         1                      2          1848                Male    Black
Henry             Smith                1                      40        1810                Female Black
Henry             Smith                1                      16        1834                Male    Black
Henry             Smith                1                      12        1838                Male    Black
Henry             Smith                1                      10        1840                Female Black
Henry             Smith                1                      8          1842                Male    Black
Henry             Smith                1                      6          1844                Female Black
Henry             Smith                1                      3          1847                Female Black
Dicy               Neighbors        1                      32        1818                Female Black
Caleb              Hale                1                      46        1804                Male    Black
William D       Flood               1                      10        1840                Female Black
William D       Flood               1                      6          1844                Male    Black
Henry             Smith               1                      12        1838                Female Black
Sarah               Carter            1                      27        1823                Female Black
Sarah               Carter            1                      8          1842                Male    Black
Sarah               Carter            1                      6          1844                Female Mulatto
Sarah               Carter            1                      3          1847                Male    Black
Isaac                Stephens       1                      38        1812                Female Black
Isaac                Stephens       1                      21        1829                Female Black
Isaac                Stephens       1                      7          1843                Male    Black
Isaac                Stephens       1                      3          1847                Female Black
Isaac                Stephens       1                      6 mos   1850                Female Black
Joseph             Gentry           1                      25        1825                Male    Black
Joseph             Gentry            1                      18        1832                Male    Black
Joseph             Gentry            1                      23        1827                Female Black
Joseph             Gentry            1                      13        1837                Male    Black
Joseph             Gentry            1                      6          1844                Female Black
Joseph             Gentry            1                      2          1848                Male    Black
Joseph             Gentry            1                      1 mo    1850                Male    Black
Joseph             Gentry            1                      3          1847                Male    Black
Joseph             Gentry            1                      3          1847                Male    Mulatto
Thomas J         Barrett             1                      33        1817                Male    Black
John                 Pettey             1                      30        1820                Female Black
John                 Pettey             1                      1 mo    1850                Male    Black
Benjamin         Gentry             1                      6          1844                Male    Black
John                 Pattey             1                      36        1814                Male    Black
John                 Pattey             1                      34        1816                Female Black
Frances           Shreeve          1                      23        1827                Female Black
Frances           Shreeve          1                      15        1835                Male    Black
Frances           Shreeve          1                      4          1846                Male    Black
William            Todd                 1                      54        1796                Male    Black
William            Todd                 1                      21        1829                Female Black
Catharine        Payne              1                      12        1838                Female Black
Martha             Smith               1                      45        1805                Female Black
Martha             Smith               1                      21        1829                Male    Black
Martha             Smith               1                      14        1836                Male    Black
Martha             Smith               1                      12        1838                Female Black
Martha             Smith               1                      9          1841                Male    Black
Martha             Smith               1                      7          1843                Female Black
Martha             Smith               1                      6          1844                Female Black
Martha             Smith               1                      5 mos   1850                Male    Black
James              Roach             1                      30        1820                Female Black
James              Roach             1                      7          1843                Male    Black
James              Roach             1                      4          1846                Male    Black
Thomas            Phillips            1                      43        1807                Female Black
Thomas            Phillips            1                      4 mos   1850                Male    Black
Elizabeth         Whitinghill       1                      18        1832                Male    Black
Solomon          Phillips            1                      13        1837                Female Black
Solomon          Phillips            1                      11        1839                Male    Black
Matthew           Phillips            1                      15        1835                Male    Black

Pg 7:
           
Matthew           Phillips            1                      5          1845                Male    Black
Mason C          Pate                 1                      50        1800                Female Black
Jacob               Mcgavock       1                      9          1841                Male    Black
John                 Haynes            1                      40        1810                Female Black
John                 Haynes            1                      10        1840                Male    Black
John                 Haynes            1                      8          1842                Female Black
John                 Haynes            1                      8          1842                Female Black
John                 Haynes            1                      3          1847                Male    Black
Austin               Hobbs             1                      15        1835                Female Mulatto
Justin               Mccarty           1                      27        1823                Female Black
Justin               Mccarty           1                      3          1847                Female Black
Justin               Mccarty           1                      2          1848                Female Black
Justin               Mccarty           1                      9 mos   1850                Male    Black
Jesse L            Black               1                      15        1835                Female Black
David B           Hardin              1                      28        1822                Female Black
Stephen W      Colyear           1                      60        1790                Male    Black
Stephen W      Colyear           1                      40        1810                Male    Black
Stephen W      Colyear           1                      35        1815                Female Black
Stephen W      Colyear           1                      3          1847                Male    Black
Cornelius         Roach             1                      11        1839                Female Black
Mary                Taylor               1                      45        1805                Male    Black
Mary                Taylor               1                      29        1821                Female Black
Mary                Taylor               1                      1          1849                Male    Black